EARTH REPAIR CORPS
Native Plant Feature for February: Mexican/Lindheimer’s Silktassel – Garrya ovata ssp. lindheimeri
Family: Garryaceae/Silktassel family
Written by: Guest Contributor Elenore Goode

Lindheimer’s Silktassel is a valuable evergreen plant to enliven the winter landscape and help wildlife through the leaner seasons. Silktassel is often found in robust, shrubby colonies, but can also grow into small, wiry trees. They tend to grow more slender and tall when in the forest understory, and may be more shrub-like when in the full sun. This subspecies of Garrya ovata is endemic to the Edwards Plateau and grows most frequently in association with the limestones there.

Even during droughts in the shallow rocky soils of rough, steep hill country landscapes, this species proves hardy and dependable for producing berries in the fall that benefit a variety of wildlife. It can tolerate both very dry and wet conditions when in its preferred limestone soils, and loves to grow in forests and their margins, but can be found growing anywhere from along creeks, to the hillsides and cliffs above creeks or moist canyons, to dry hilltop forests or savannahs, and seep areas with shallow calcareous soil. 

The berries of Silktassel are a great resource for wildlife in some otherwise stark and eroded landscapes that are often lacking many species of native fruiting shrubs and flowering trees due to historic overbrowsing from livestock, modern vegetation removal, and a lack of decent soils. Silktassel’s slightly fuzzy leaves are a bit more deer-resistant than some native shrubs, leaving more evergreen cover to protect and hide smaller wildlife year-round. Their needs for soil, moisture, and light combine very well in plantings with other native evergreens, such as mountain laurel, yaupon, agarita, and evergreen sumac, which together make some especially beautiful winter cover. 

Silktassel’s soothing light green leaf color also contrasts well with the darker greens of these other species, and they have some lovely and intriguing wind-pollinated blooms in the spring. Species of the Silktassel genus are also regarded as having medicinal value. Lindheimer’s Silktassel is becoming more and more common in nurseries, and is an overall wonderful, hardy, and easy-maintenance understory tree or shrub for the native landscape. 

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How To Build A Cob Wall
By Kirby Fry

After working with natural building materials for 25 years, the cob or “puddled adobe” wall system has become my favorite of all the adobe wall systems.  I define a natural building material as one that is locally available and non-manufactured.  This how to do it yourself guide will describe 4 different forms of adobe wall systems, explain why the cob wall system is my top pick, and tell you how to build a cob wall.

Types Of Adobe Wall Systems

Adobe is generally made from sand, clay and straw.  Adobe wall systems include handmade adobe blocks, compressed earth blocks (engineered adobe), earth bags (flex form adobe), and cob (puddled adobe).

The handmade adobe block is perhaps the most traditional system for building an adobe wall.  It is made from sand, clay and straw. Fresh, clean horse manure is often substituted for the straw component.  Adobe blocks are 10” wide by 14” long by 3 ¾” tall. A clay slip is applied between each course of adobes. The adobe block wall system can be either 10” thick or 14” thick. 

Compressed earth blocks (CEB’s) do not have to have straw in them, and are made by a machine that compresses moist sand and clay at a pressure of 1,200 to 1,600 pounds per square inch.  Often 6% of the mix is portland cement to keep the CEB’s from eroding during the construction process. CEB dimensions are the same as the handmade adobe block, 10” wide by 14” long by 3 ¾” tall.

Earthbag wall systems are also referred to as flex form adobe or superadobe.  This method includes mixing sand and clay together, getting it moist, and packing it into continuous bags.  Earthbag walls are about 16” thick. When this method was first developed by the Iranian-born architect Nader Khalili he was using a solid nylon or plastic bag, now earthbag builders have gone over to using the Raschel weave continuous onion bag that you commonly see being used to sell onions in at almost every grocery store.

Cob or puddled adobe wall systems are made from sand, clay, and straw that is mixed together and then dumped on top of the wall system.  Cob is an old English word that means “lump of dough” and because it is put into the wall system while still wet, the builders can only raise the walls up 4” or 8” per day before it begins to slump.  A cob wall may vary in width from 12” to 18” depending on how tall or long the wall is.

Why Cob Is My Favorite Adobe Wall System

After working with all of these adobe wall systems my favorite is now cob, and here’s why:

The cob wall system is monolithic and does not require a concrete bond beam at the top of it – a bond beam is made from concrete, steel, or wood and in adobe block and CEB wall systems a bond beam is necessary to hold the top of the wall system together.  

A concrete bond beam that we poured for a CEB wall system.

The cob wall system is ready to plaster when it is finished.  Earth bag, and CEB wall systems require more preparation for plasters like filling in between the bags, and or chipping up the face of the CEB’s.  

How we chipped the face of the CEB’s in order to prepare them for a lime plaster.

The cob wall system is more efficient for smaller job sites.  Making 5,000 to 10,000 adobes or CEB’s all at once on a job site is a big logistical chore and requires a lot of space.  Making adobes off site and hauling them to the job site is also a huge logistical chore. Making cob on site is slower, but requires less space, and makes less of a mess.  

The mixing machine, the CEB production machine and a skid steer loader on the job site.

Lastly, cob wall systems are a more ergonomic building material for the builders.  The cob is easily dumped out onto the wall system a half bucket at a time. Ladders and scaffolding keep the crew working between their knee and chest heights.  By contrast, filling earthbags means that you are standing on top of the wall system, holding a 5 gallon bucket with the continuous earthbag attached to it, walking backwards on top of wet adobe under your feet while 2 or 3 people dump the fresh adobe into your bucket.  

The crew making an earthbag wall at Earth Native Wilderness School.

How To Build A Cob Wall System

All buildings require a solid foundation, and the immense weight of an adobe wall system is no exception to that rule.  Traditionally for a 14” wide cob wall system an 18” wide by 24” deep rubble filled trench with a concrete or mortared-together masonry footer has been used.  Today, I wouldn’t hesitate to pour an engineered concrete slab for building a cob wall on top of.  

A rubble filled trench with a concrete grade beam set above it designed for a 12” wide cob wall.

I highly recommend that the roof for any natural building be a hip roof where there are protective eves on all four sides of the building.  A single gable roof leaves 2 sides of the walls exposed to catching more weather which can significantly damage lime and clay plasters.

Keep your cob wall system relatively low, somewhere between 8’ and 12’ tall.  A second story on top of a cab wall is possible, but above 8’ to 12’ in wall height, I recommend going over to a more conventional 2” x 4” stick frame.

Once the grade beam or concrete slab has been constructed, it’s time to have the materials delivered to the site.  Here is what you will need to begin; 10 yards of manufactured sand, 10 yards of clay, 10 yards of decomposed granite, and 12 straw bales.  These materials need to be close to the work site, and you need to be ready to have more truckloads of material brought in again and again in the proper order.

Clay, manufactured sand, and decomposed granite on the job site.
Clay, manufactured sand, and decomposed granite on the job site.
Clay, manufactured sand, and decomposed granite on the job site.

On smaller job sites our crews mix cob on a 4’ by 4’ plywood mixing board with a mortar hoe.  Initially we were mixing the cob on blue tarps but after just 2 weeks the tarps fell apart and everyone on the crew preferred the mixing boards anyway. On a bigger job site a large gas powered mortar mixer is the only mixer that will turn over the heavy cob.  Some crews will also use a skid steer loader with a mixer attachment but I have never used one of those before.

A crew member mixing cob on a 4’ x 4’ plywood mixing board.

So let’s start our first batch of cob with a ratio of 1 to 1 to 1.  That’s 1 half bucket of clay, one half bucket of manufactured sand, and 1 half bucket of decomposed granite.  The straw is chopped up into 6” to 10” lengths with a machete on a board and 4 large handfuls will be added into each mix.  First dry mix the clay, manufactured sand, and decomposed granite. When all of those ingredients are thoroughly mixed together in dry form, then add about 4” to 6” of water in a 5 gallon bucket to the dry mix.  Next, wet mix those ingredients. When all of those ingredients are thoroughly mixed together add 2 large handfuls of chopped up straw. When all of those ingredients are thoroughly mixed together add 2 more large handfuls of chopped straw (total of 4 large handfuls) to get the final batch of finished cob.

[Images 10 through 18 show how the cob ingredients are added to and mixed on a 4’ x 4’ mixing board]
How the cob ingredients are added to and mixed on a 4’ x 4’ mixing board.
How the cob ingredients are added to and mixed on a 4’ x 4’ mixing board.
Clay has been added.
Manufactured sand has been added.
Decomposed granite has been added.
Mix all of those ingredients thoroughly together in dry form.
Then, prepare the mix to add about 4” to 6” of water in a 5 gallon bucket.
Next, wet mix those ingredients.

Load the cob into 5 gallon buckets filled only half way.  Never fill a bucket up all the way as it becomes too heavy.  Always try to carry a half filled bucket in each hand so as not to strain one arm by carrying just one bucket at a time.  Dump the half full buckets of cob directly on to the wall system and begin to evenly work the cob out onto the wall system.  Press the fresh wet cob down onto the foundation or onto the dried cob beneath it by using a cobber’s thumb, which is usually just a 1” diameter by 10” long branch or old tool handle.  The aggregate in the cob is deliberately sharp and will quickly tear up your hands and fingers if a cobber’s thumb is not used.

If the cob is dry enough, one should be able to build 4” to 8” in height of cob wall per day.  When the cob begins to slump, it’s time to stop adding material to it.  The next day, yesterday’s slumped cob will need to be trimmed off and reused.  Every morning, without exception, the cob wall will need to be trimmed, and the wall system kept square and plumb.

Some of the tools we use to trim the walls every morning.

Wooden door and window frames called “bucks” will need to be framed and set flush to the exterior of the cob wall.  A 3’ 0” wide by 6’ 8” tall standard exterior door should have a door buck with dimensions of 3’ 2” wide by 6’ 10” tall by 4 ⅝” deep.  A 2’ 6” wide by 5’ 0” tall standard window should have a window buck with dimensions of 2’ 6 ½” wide by 5’ ½” tall by 4 ⅝” deep. The window bucks are typically set at a height of 6’ 8” and down in order to match door heights, and are held in place with wooden cleats or pegs attached to their sides called “dead men.”  The doors and windows themselves will be set into the bucks after all of the cobbing has been finished.  

The door and window bucks set into the cob walls after the walls are built up to the proper height.

A structural header or piece of timber framing is set over the door and window bucks to carry the load of the cob wall above it.

The timber header after installation.
A window after the window sill and trim were set.

When the cob wall reaches its final height a simple top plate, not a concrete bond beam, is embedded into the wall using more wooden cleats or “dead men.”  The roof’s rafters will sit on this top plate.

The top plate right after it was set.
The rafters after they were set on the top plate.

The electrical wiring is notched into the wall system after the cob wall is built.  This cob building was permitted and inspected by the City of Austin and the city required this method of wiring because it did not want the wiring to be buried behind the cob allowing them to visually inspect it.

How we notched the cob walls and set flexible conduit for the electrical wiring into it.

The exterior walls were plastered with a lime plaster and the interior walls were plastered with a clay plaster.

The 2 different types of plaster that were used. A lime plaster was used for the exterior cob walls…
…and a clay plaster was used for the interior cob walls.

My advice to anyone building with cob for the first time is to start on a small scale.  Building with natural building materials requires just as much, if not more, skill and caution than building with conventional building materials.  It will also require more time than building with conventional building materials, and cost about 30% more.  

Do not be daunted by these suggestions and warnings though, the rewards of living in a home made from natural building materials and or that you have built yourself are infinite and your life will change for the better because of it!

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We’d like to wish all of you a very happy holiday season & extend a very sincere thank you for your continued support of our mission!

In the new year,  we will be publishing The Dirt on a quarterly basis. We would love your input on which stories you want to see focused on going forward. Please take a moment to respond to this poll and let us know!

Read more below for a few end-of-the-year seasonal tips.  As always, if you wish to make a donation to Earth Repair Corps, it’s tax-deductible. 


  • One of our favorite native plants of the holiday season is the evergreen shrub/small tree Yaupon (ilex vomitoria), also known as Native Holly. 
    • The red berries that yaupon produces in the winter make for great seasonal decorations, and are also welcome winter forage to local wildlife. 
    • Yaupon is the only caffeinated plant native to North America, and its leaves can be used to make a tea by roasting them at a low temperature. Check out some of these recipes so you can roast your own!
    • Yaupon can be found across east Texas, and into the eastern portion of the Hill Country. Read more at Forage Texas
    • Possumhaw (ilex decidua) is very similar to yaupon, but it is not evergreen and loses its leaves in the winter.
  • Winter is always a good time to plant cover crops. Rye, oats, and wheat can still be sown throughout the season. Brassica and other winter greens can also be planted if the seedlings were not hit by hard freezes.
  • There are several ways to reduce your waste during the holiday season. Whether it’s with food scraps, gift wrapping, or discarding of your Christmas tree, don’t forget to apply permaculture principles post-celebration!
  • Local herbs for digestion: the holiday season is typically characterized by an abundance of food, and you may find yourself wanting some digestive aids. Take a look at ChickweedCurled Dock, and Dandelion. And this recipe for an Evergreen Cordial by Traditional Medicinals just for fun. 
Wishing an abundant holiday season to you all!
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October 2019 – Native Plant of the Month

Written by Guest Contributor: Elenore Goode

Plant: Asters/Symphyotrichum genus species

Focusing on a few of the most common species for central Texas: Fall Aster/Symphyotrichum oblongifolium, Drummond’s Aster/Symphyotrichum drummondii var. texanum, Tall Aster/Symphyotrichum praeltum var. praealtum, White Heath Aster/Symphyotrichum ericoides

Family: Asteraceae

Fall flowers are a soothing reprieve after the stifling summer heat, and a vital necessity for many creatures that are preparing for migration or winter.

The many Symphyotrichum, or Aster species that grow in Texas delight every possible landscape – from deep woods to open prairies, and wetlands to rocky hillsides. Their great diversity of physical forms and growing preferences makes this genus especially reliable for enlivening late season gardens. These hardy perennials typically begin the year as small rosettes, growing stalks throughout summer for their fall blooms, and then crumpling down to the ground again in winter. Many of these species will also briefly bloom in late spring/early summer if it is cool and rainy.
 
These are just a few of the local asters I enjoy greeting in the “second spring” that refreshes us after the diminished growth of summer – Tall Aster thrives in deeper prairie soils and slightly wetter conditions with full sun to part shade, though can be easily grown in quite a range of different garden conditions. It will send its roots out to form large colonies, sending up stalks usually to 3-4 feet, topped with bunches of purple-white flowers. Tall Aster is one of the easiest asters to transplant, and any root dug from the ground will happily grow in a new home, and cutting the top of the stalk off will help it along. It does best in large colonies and with other plants that can provide extra support for the long stalks, like Goldenrod, Maximilian Sunflower, or Indiangrass.
 
White Aster
White Heath Aster can grow in a range of soil and moisture conditions, proving to be very hardy growing in anything from steep cliffs and caliche seeps to deep soils in open prairies. It is also fond of the part-shade made by north-facing slopes. The misty white blooms of this species catch the morning sun in a charming way; their white petals themselves are reminiscent of the cold and often dewey air of fall cool fronts that soon dots these same flowers after they open. 
 
Drummond’s, or Texas Aster, is a common woodland aster that is a staple amongst the forest floor herbs of steep hills with shallow soils. Though they may be easy to overlook while they are growing, a forest dotted with these will take on a mystical character when the purple fairy flowers announce their presence
 
Drummond’s or Texas Aster

Fall Aster is perhaps the most well-known and ubiquitous of this genus in central TX, and with it’s manageable and small woody shrub-like form and happy demeanor, it is an essential garden plant for the hardy native landscape. Fall Asters spread well through their roots to form wide colonies, though not as vigorous a spreader as Tall Aster, and a bit hardier. Their habits, needs, and their radiant bunches of little purple flowers compliment very well with other fall blooming native plants. Their roots are also easy to transplant to make a whole new patch, and their above-ground structure is often better able to infiltrate rainfall into the soil than some asters – some of the other species are really meant to grow in a prairie-like matrix with the surface structures and roots of many other species filling in the gaps for the other, as well as providing physical support. Every species has its strong points, and by combining as many plants of complimentary growing habit together as possible, we can allow for stronger roots systems that soak in more rainfall, feed a more diverse group of soil micro-organisms, and create a more resilient and complex layer of nutrient-rich humus comprised from the various qualities of all the different types of leaves.  

Fall Aster
 
Symphyotrichum is another overall dependable genus of much-needed native perennials that can be utilized anywhere from prominent stars of fall display gardens, to background support plants for garden edges and wildlife habitat. All of these different species in their myriad of forms are all nonetheless recognizable as Asters by their flowers, and provide a consistent friendly presence for pollinators on long journeys, as their adaptability and diversity allows them to shine in so many places.
 
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Featured Woodlot Tree – October 2019

Common Name: Southern Live Oak – Species: Quercus virginiana – Family: Fagaceae

Written by: Kirby Fry – Photo by: Elenore Goode

“The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago.  The second best time is now.” Chinese proverb.

Live oak trees are iconic trees here in Central Texas, they are evergreen, extremely strong, and make beautiful and effective shade trees.  The first tree house I built was in a live oak tree in our backyard. The tree house was three stories tall with operable doors and windows, carpeting, and electricity.  It took three of my friends to wrap our arms around its trunk.

If you could plant a tree and see it thrive, which one (or ones) would it be?  I would plant a live oak, a magnolia tree, and a bald cypress. We should continue on with our plans to plant forests and woodlots that we can build houses with, that function as windbreaks and erosion control, and that enrich natural regions.

Which trees and timber products do we need the most?  Let’s take a stroll down the lumber aisles of any Home Depot, Lowe’s, or McCoy’s.  There we find framing lumber milled from spruce, pine, and fir. The next aisle over we find sheets of plywood made from pine, oak, birch, and maple.  The next aisle over we find trim boards made from oak, cedar, pine, and poplar. Visit a specialty lumber store and you find oak, cypress, ash, maple, and mesquite among many others for furniture, cabinetry, and countertop production.  Not all of these species of trees can be grown here in Texas but many of them can.

In a sustainable human settlement, one management objective would be to plant enough trees to replace the lumber used to build your home.  A 1,000 square foot home requires approximately 6,300 board feet to complete. A mature pine tree at a height of 80 feet and width 2 feet will yield 754 board feet, so 8 or 9 mature pine trees are what we need to build a 1,000 square foot home. 

Each tree species grows into a different form and will vary on how many board feet it yields when mature, so a woodlot consists of a variety of different trees – oak, pine, cypress, ash, maple, and hickory, and those trees are used for a variety of different functions in the house – framing, planks, trim, and doors and windows.

The southern live oak tree has historically been used for ship building (because its trunk and mature branches are curved), and tool handles.  It can also be milled into posts and beams, and lumber for trim.

Propagation

The acorns from live oak trees should be collected in late October as they begin to fall from the tree, and then be planted directly into the ground.  The best acorns for germinating will still be on the tree. The larger the acorn, the more likely successful germination will be. Remove the acorn caps and any other debris, put the acorns in a bowl of water and discard the ones that float because the shell has been breached and air has gotten inside of it.

Sow the acorns in good, well-drained mineral / sandy soil with a 1 inch layer of compost on top.  The acorns will not need cold treatment or stratification. Partial shade on the west side is helpful, and moderate, consistent watering is essential.  Squirrel proof caging or exclosure for the seedlings is recommended.

Transplant your live oaks in the early spring.  Prune the roots of the tree to make transplanting easier and encourage a flush of new root growth closer to the root ball.  A wide shallow hole is best for live oaks. Water moderately and consistently for the first year, and do not add soil amendments or fertilizers.  Keep the top of the root crown 1 to 2 inches above the surface of the ground.  

Pruning & Maintenance

As your live oak grows, moderate branch pruning is recommended, removing just the lower branches to ensure a knot free trunk up to about 8 or 10 feet in height.  Proper wound care is required by minimizing the number of branches pruned back each year – 3 to 9, keeping the pruning cuts to the smallest diameter possible, and spraying a pruning tar on open cuts and wounds to prevent fungal infection.

The live oak tree will be mature in 50 years, however in a woodlot your cultivated trees are harvested at earlier stages in their life cycle for fence posts, tool handles, and smaller posts and beams.

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September 2019 – Native Plant of the Month
Written by Guest Contributor: Elenore Goode
Goldenrod/Solidago spp., Solidago canadensis/Tall Goldenrod
Family: Asteraceae

Late summer in Texas is a tough time for a plant to begin to flower, and the many perennial species of Solidago that grow across the state are some of the most dependable plants for wildlife to find blooms on at this time, despite any heat and drought. Growing everywhere from wetlands and prairies to drylands and cliff faces, Goldenrods are a very adaptable and diverse genus of plants that have much to offer humans and wildlife. The different species also have a variety of growth habits, from small clumping species, to some that will spread quickly through their roots, and go as far as they can reach. 

All photos © Elenore Goode 2019

Their bright yellow hues are a welcome sight for pollinators at the end of a tough summer. Goldenrods can be counted on to tough out the worst and still show their best colors. Solidago blooms are often super loaded with a great variety of pollinator species buzzing around them, since they provide a vital surge of rich pollinator forage at a time when many insects and other plants may be trying to recover from a harsh summer before winter.  

Goldenrod’s flowers and leaves have also long been recognized as having useful medicinal qualities, and remain popular as a hardy wild remedy plant in many pollinator gardens. 


The drought endurance, ability to grow in poor conditions, and rapid-spreading habit of some species may also make them too vigorous for companion planting in vegetable and herb gardens. However, these same qualities make those species ideal for re-vegetating ecologically-degraded areas with beneficial plants for wildlife, and are a great choice for areas with poor soils and low species density. Even in gardens, they can be carefully introduced (especially in more depleted soils that need organic matter) and used to suppress other plants like Bermuda grass, or to provide just enough shade for herbs and veggies in late summer, when not allowed to smother them.

These hardy but aggressive species of Goldenrod are great as support plants, and excel in wildflower borders, hedges, and tall grass prairie settings. They do best when they are allowed to grow in dense colonies, or with other tallgrass prairie plants for structural support. 

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September 2019 – Crop of the Month
Pecan – Scientific Name: Carya illinoinensis
Family: Juglandaceae
Written by: Kirby Fry

The pecan tree is iconic.  It is a tall, beautiful and agriculturally productive native tree.  

The pecan tree is also the state tree of Texas.  

Since the 1880’s the United States of America has become a major producer of pecan nuts, which are actually drupes or stone fruits, harvesting 264.2 million pounds of pecans annually as of 2014.  Mexico and the US of A account for 93% ton of the world’s pecan production.  

Growing up in Houston, Texas, my second story bedroom was perched over our neighbor’s single story house which had a metal roof on it. I remember hearing pecans falling from their pecan tree and hitting that roof all throughout the fall.  During those fall and winter months there was also a wooden bowl that sat out in our dining room which was full of pecans. Nearby was an assortment of tools used for cracking open the shells and picking out the delicious fruit inside, we had contests to see who could “shell” the most intact pecans.

Right around the fall equinox, pecans are ripening here in Texas. This is a really good time to start thinking about planting your very own pecan trees.

Planting Tips

The pecan tree can be planted from late December through early March and will do well in every county of Texas.  They are typically sold as bare root stock with a 24” to 32” long intact tap root.  

The roots of a pecan tree should be kept moist from the time of purchase to the time of planting.  

At least 2 or 3 different varieties should be selected and purchased for cross pollination.  

Cultivar pecan trees are grafted and chosen for the sweetness of their fruit, the thinness of their shell, and the alternating years that they produce.  Pecan tree growers are careful to select trees that yield pecans during alternating years, as a pecan tree will produce one year and then possibly skip 1 or 2 years of production.

Several varieties of pecan trees are recommended for Central Texas.  These varieties include – Sioux, Choctaw, Wichita, Cheyenne, Pawnee, Forkert, Cape Fear, Kiowa, and Caddo.  They have all adapted to river and creek bottoms, preferring deep well drained sandy and loamy soils, though I have also seen them do well in clayey soils that have good drainage.

Select a site to plant your pecan trees that is at least 20’ away from your house, and away from driveways where cars will be parked.  Pecans are large trees that tend to start dropping large branches after 20 or 30 years of growth. If planted close to your home, they will need careful pruning later on in their life cycle.

Pecan trees should be planted 35’ apart from one another in order to give their massive root systems plenty of room to develop.  

The hole you dig for them should be as deep as the tap root is long (sometimes 32” to 48” deep), with the objective being to replant the tree as deeply as it was planted at the nursery.  The soil line on bare root trees can be determined by the color of the bark.  

Because the hole you will need to dig for a pecan tree will be deeper and larger than most fruiting trees, the tap root should sit firmly against the bottom of the hole you dig to avoid undesirable settling.  The hole should be carefully back-filled and watered in, in order to prevent branching roots from settling or sinking too much as well.

The tree should be watered in with at least 5 gallons of water per tree immediately after planting.  

The time needed for the tree to begin production takes close to 8 years, after which the tree will begin to yield 10 pounds of pecans per year and up.

Tree Fertilization and Maintenance

A nitrogen fertilizer should be the only soil-applied amendment that your pecans need.  Alfalfa meal, feather meal, bone meal, and/or blood meal should be applied in small amounts throughout the growing season.  These are low or moderate sources of nitrogen and you could easily double the amount applied when compared to high nitrogen fertilizers.

About 1 pound of high nitrogen fertilizer (21-0-0) per inch of trunk diameter should be applied each year.  Keep high nitrogen fertilizers away from the base of the trunk in order to prevent tissue scalding.

As the trees mature into their 7th or 8th years of growth, avoid applying high nitrogen fertilizers after June in order to prevent a flush of new growth getting frozen back in the fall.  

During the first 7 years of growth, a zinc nitrate solution should be applied in a liquid form to the surface of the leaves, 2 to 4 teaspoons per gallon of water or 1 to 2 quarts per 100 gallons of water.  Pecan trees deficient in zinc will have smaller, weaker leaves and leaf stems and in extreme zinc deficiencies the trees will experience a higher rate of die back during harsh summer and winter conditions.  This zinc emulsion should be sprayed on the trees every 2 weeks or so during the growing season.

Water your pecan trees from March through September for the first couple of years after you plant them.  During the summer time your young pecan trees may need 2” of water per square foot of growing area, one time per week.

Low emerging braches (a.k.a. trashy trunk) should be pruned back each winter, and care should be taken to select and preserve a central leader for the top of the tree.  Try to avoid allowing a “V” to form in the tree’s trunk as pecans grow to be large and somewhat brittle, and a forked trunk will often crack and split.

Maintain the area under your pecan trees and keep it free of brush and tall grasses during the fall so that the fallen pecans can be more easily harvested. Once your pecan trees are established after 8 years or so, fertilize and water only as needed.

Harvesting pecans is a great way to supplement your fall and winter diet. Pecans also have a high market value and can be used to feed pigs during fall and winter months.  

Take a look at your property, and find a good place to plant a few pecan trees.

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Our PDC Grad Interview Series is back!

Our hope is to convey what a life-changing opportunity the Permaculture Design Course can be, while learning more about what first attracted these former students to sustainable design and how they have applied those principles since taking a PDC. 

Learn More about the Permaculture Design Course and check out our upcoming Fall 2019 PDC.

We’re continuing this series with small-business owner Michael Wolfert of Symbiosis Regenerative Systems – read more below.

1)  How did you become interested in sustainable design?  Please describe to us any moments in your life that piqued your interest in sustainable, regenerative, and holistic systems.  

I had a deep feeling of despair in my late teenage years and early twenties. At the time I was mostly seeking ways to reduce my footprint and be an activist for policy change and reform. One day a friend of mine, Joshua Adair, called me up and said that there was a potential scholarship for a permaculture design course. I said, “what the heck is permaculture.” He said “It’s like gardening, natural building, community building and learning to live more sustainably!” and proceeded to give the details of the event. I said I would have to think about it. We hung up. I thought about it for literally 1 minute, called him back and let him know I was really excited to learn about this and incredibly grateful that there was a scholarship because I would not have been able to afford it at the time. I started to do some research and prepare for the PDC, though I still had no idea the rabbit hole I was about to enter. 

2) What were you looking to learn when you signed up for a permaculture design course?

I didn’t have many expectations, having just stumbled upon the concept with very little time to consider the implications and the impact they could have on my outlook and life. 

All Images © Symbiosis Regenerative Systems 2019

3) Who taught your permaculture design course and when?  What did you appreciate about that course, and what would you have liked to have learned more about?   

Kirby Fry, Gary Freeborg, Jenny Nazak and Ted Norris.

This course was a real turning point for me. Kirby led the majority of class time and he did a great job introducing me to the idea that we might actually strive to have a positive footprint instead of just trying to eliminate our negative footprint, and that in this practice we could aim to set up positive feedback loops, modeling our designs after ecosystems. 

From that point forward, I knew what my driving focus would be. I would try my best to become a mutually beneficial symbiote with my ecosystem. An agent for making connections between the correlating outputs and needed inputs of the systems around me. Nudging ecological succession forward. Taking more responsibility for my family’s needs, consumption, and outputs. Striving to leave a legacy of regeneration in my wake. It’s a lifelong pursuit that I hope future generations will be able to carry forward. 

“This site is a 7,000 square foot lot in an urban environment. In this picture you can see one of the main swales we installed – using earthworks and rain water catchment we’ve managed to catch about 95% of the water falling onto the site as well as from the 3 neighboring lots up hill.”

4) What other courses, if any, have you participated in that have helped you to learn more about and implement sustainable design systems?

Working at Morning Glory Farm with Gracie Brousard and Richard Lindley was my first real-world continuing education. These folks were real eco-pioneers and all-around fantastic mentors. I was very lucky to find them and to be allowed to study farming with them. I worked there for nearly 2 years as a farmhand. During this time I lived primarily in a school bus with no running water or power. The meals Gracey would make from the produce they grew and goods they traded other farmers for really opened my eyes to what eating fresh and seasonal produce would be like. they were both extremely patient and kind. I learned a ton about gardening, farming, community building, and being a mentee.

Cypress Valley Farms was my second continuing education course where I worked as a co-farm manager in an attempt to start a profitable regenerative farm. I learned so much from this experience and the property owners that it’s hard to summarize. Some of the main takeaways were to focus equally on the business and marketing of your farm as you do on the growing of produce. Make clear agreements with all decision-makers – 1 hour of energy input here on the front end could easily save 10 + hours of confusion on the back end. Establish a healthy work-life balance and don’t let being a business owner consume and burn you out. 

Hill Country Natives was my third continued education course. Here, I worked with Mitch Mitchamore to cultivate an intensive food forest in Leander, Texas starting with 6 inches of topsoil sitting on hundreds of feet of rock shelf. Mitch runs a fantastic nursery for natives and fruiting adapted plants but often says the main yield of his business is education, conversation, and connection. He takes as much time as needed to work with each client personally. He gave me a lot of freedom and trust to come up with experiments and implement them on the grounds at Hill Country Natives. Some days, we would be working at the potting trailer for many hours having wide-ranging discussions and being eaten alive by mosquitoes. I learned a lot about leadership and problem solving from Mitch and a lot about food forests and native plants from the work we did together.

I worked for Paige Hill-Oliverio of Urban Patchwork as I was just getting my business started, doing landscaping installation and maintenance gigs in Austin. I learned about being a contractor, spreadsheets, and integrating art into a functional design. Paige does great work and I still enjoy collaborating with her on projects to this day. 

Teaching a food forest workshop with Caroline Riley-Carberry, Food Forests For All, three years in a row was a powerful learning experience. We taught people the basics of food forest design and the underlying principles, lead them through a design process, and implemented the design over the course of three days. Some of the results are on display at the Whole Life Learning Center, where a field has been transformed into a thriving food forest that is managed by Caroline with help from the whole life-learners. Seeing the iterations and receiving critical feedback from the systems this course worked to design and install furthered my understanding of food forestry and permaculture in general. Caroline taught me a lot about facilitation and design. I believe some of the initial collaborators that started the permablitzes and eventually Earth Repair Corps first began putting heads together at FFFA 1.  I love seeing a ripple effect of positive actions after good people get together and get inspired by a common goal. 

I traveled to Michigan to learn from Mark Shepard with Pete VanDyck. I learned from Mark that the economics of large scale permaculture farming are tricky and that you have to be creative and strategic to make your way in this space. I learned that small farmers can leverage their power as co-ops to compete against big ag and revitalize agricultural communities. I learned about designing systems that can be managed by machines at scale in order to compete against big ag without compromising the regenerative metrics of success we strive to meet. I also hosted Mark to teach a workshop at our homestead when we had just started renovating the place and learned not to host workshops until your infrastructure is in good shape. The workshop was a success and I learned more from Mark about his philosophy, and made wonderful connections with local like-minded folks. 

I was a participant in TexRex with Darren Doherty, where we learned the Regrarians method of property design. This was Darren’s adaptation of the Keyline Scale of Permanence, based on years of experience designing large scale regenerative properties. This method has been a huge help in systematizing my design process and presenting information to my clients in a clear, digestible package. I learned a lot about rotational grazing, mapping, keyline design and much much more. This is one of the best workshops I’ve ever attended in that I took home more practical advice and methodology than any other, had a lot of fun between classes, and the food was delicious! I gained a ton of inspiration from Darren, Lisa, and the other participants.

I’ve learned from the Permablitzes, and seeing the updates from those systems installed has helped me to have more iterative feedback to improve the designs that I create.

I’ve been running my own permaculture/regenerative design and installation business for nearly 6 years now. We have worked on over 100 individual projects, and being able to monitor these systems gives me even more data to draw on for improving the design, installation, and maintenance methods we use for all things regenerative. 

I’ve been living on my own homestead for nearly 4 years and am constantly learning from observing ecosystem succession in outer zones as well as the inner zone experiments and systems we’re running out here. One standard question I have to ask myself when installing a new system is: will I be able to maintain this with my 3 kids in tow or even better get them to help me with it? How can I make this accessible and fun for our family flow? That’s a pretty fun design lense to look through.

5) Have you been able to apply what you learned from a permaculture design course to your life, and business endeavors?  If so, please elaborate.

Yes! As you can probably tell from my list above, I dove in headfirst and never looked back. 

I’ve been doing permaculture professionally for nearly 6 years. We have 8 full-time employees including myself and a great network of independent contractors we can call on for collaboration. We’ve continued to gain momentum and improve our methods each year. Although it is a marathon of hard work, I love it. The projects we work on, the team we work with and the clients who have chosen to lead the charge in this effort keep me constantly inspired, learning, and growing. 

For the last 4 years, I’ve been living on a 25-acre homestead with my family. Even though I grew up in cities and suburbs, as I got older I never really felt like I could relax when I lived in the city. The frenetic energy, constant background noise, light pollution, air pollution, the heat island effect, it all just got under my skin and made me uncomfortable. I didn’t want to raise my kids in a place where we were so reliant on seemingly fragile systems. I wanted them to grow up with the freedom to roam in the woods, get muddy, grow food and see the magic of nature unfold over many years. I don’t know if they’ll thank me for it, but I wouldn’t have it any other way and the turning point was my PDC. Each year we are more self-sufficient as we find our place within this context and ecosystem. 

6) Have you had the opportunity to teach, mentor, and/or pass on information about sustainable design to friends, family, or employees?

Yes, I’ve worked with hundreds of clients, taught at least 100 students in workshops, have taught some co-workers, and worn out my mom with my ecovangelism. I’ve also learned a lot from these interactions and continue to meet really cool folks from all walks of life who all agree that sustainable design is a good idea.


Interested in obtaining your certification? Learn more about our upcoming Permaculture Design Course here.

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July 2019 – Crop of the Month

Tomato – Scientific Name: Solanum lycopersicum
Family: Solanaceae
Written by Guest Contributor: Jennifer Goode

Tomatoes are the most popular garden vegetable crop in Texas, likely due to the relative ease with which they can be grown. Tomato season can easily last from April until October in most parts of the state, or even longer if there isn’t an early freeze. In Dripping Springs, we currently have a plot of 6 tomato plants that has been producing dozens on a weekly basis since June.  

If you missed the opportunity to plant tomatoes during the spring, you can plant transplants through July and take extra care of them until they’re ready to produce in the fall. Tomatoes grow well in most Texas areas if planted in nutritious soil that drains well. They generally need at least 6 hours of sunlight each day, but the mid-summer sun in Texas can be too extreme. It is recommended to devise a way to shade the plants from the western sun during this time of year. 

 

 Variety Selection

Texas gardeners can grow a variety of small and large fruit tomatoes, including Cherry Grande, Juliet, Red Cherry, Small Fry, Big Beef, Big Box, Celebrity, Homestead, among many others. The first thing to determine is how much space you have for your plants. 

Tomatoes come in Determinate and Indeterminate varieties. Determinate varieties usually put out a large crop at a time and are ideal for container planters, or for gardeners who have the ability to preserve their harvest. Indeterminate tomato vines continue to grow and fruit over a long period of time.  They require larger, sturdy cages and are not suited for container planting. 

 

Planting Tips

Soils with a significant amount of organic matter are best for tomatoes. It’s recommended to spread 2 to 3 inches of organic matter, such as compost or leaves, over the planting area and then mix the material into the top 4 or so inches of soil. 

Most tomatoes will need to be planted at least 3 feet apart, but some varieties may require more space depending on their vine size. Proper airflow between the plants is important to prevent mildew.

You will want to plant each transplant slightly deeper than it was previously growing. Make sure the soil is loosely packed around the base of the plant, and that you leave a “donut” around the plant base to help hold water. Adding mycorrhizal inoculants will benefit the plants’ ability to absorb and retain water and nutrients. 

Fertilize the plants every 3-4 weeks with one to two tablespoons of fertilizer. Once the plants begin to flower, add one to two inches of compost to the plant base for extra nutrients to help the plant develop its fruit. Liquid seaweed is also recommended during this time. 

 

Pest Management

Tomatoes are susceptible to a variety of pests, and there are a variety of methods to address these ranging from seaweed extract, molasses, cornmeal, neem oil, garlic, and more. 

Usually, you can find capital letters on tomato plant labels that note which diseases that particular variety is resistant to. Some of these notes include:

  • A – Resistance to alternaria leaf spot
  • F – Resistance to fusarium wilt
  • FF – Resistance to race 1 and race 2 fusarium
  • L – Resistance to septoria leaf spot
  • N – Resistance to nematodes 
  • T – Resistance to tobacco mosaic virus
  • V – Resistance to verticillium wilt 

For a more comprehensive list of tomato pests and how to address them, watch this video from Central Texas Gardener.

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July 2019 – Native Plant of the Month
Written by Guest Contributor: Elenore Goode
Inland Sea Oats/River Oats/Wood Oats, etc – Chasmanthium latifolium
Family: Poaceae (Grass)

Inland Sea Oats is a lush and vibrantly green clumping grass that is most commonly seen in the shade of woodlands, and along the floodplains of creeks and rivers. It is a warm season grass, but can grow near year-round in milder winters and summers, making it a great choice for forest grazing systems. Tall stands of this strikingly beautiful grass also make great cover for wildlife, who also are fond of the abundance of seeds it produces.
 
 
Chasmanthium latifolium, like many native plants, has been severely reduced from its historical range by centuries of overgrazing due to its high palatability.
 
Inland Sea Oats is remarkably hardy when in the shade, and can grow in much more rugged and alkaline areas than the few habitats where it remains, as long as it has shade and a good covering of leaf mulch at its roots. It can grow in more sun as long as there is plenty of moisture and deep soil. It can survive the worst summers by going into drought dormancy, but will usually remain green and growing even in drought years.
 
 
Chasmanthium latifolium is one of the earlier grasses to emerge in spring, and by summer it may be four feet tall with good spring rains. Its seeds are often ready around late summer or early fall, but in more beneficial rain years, we can even see its fully-formed seeds as early as June and July. This grass is one of many plants that is sensitive to the highly variable seasonal weather conditions of central Texas, and has quite variable growth and bloom times depending primarily on the abundance of rain in the spring and summer, and fewer hard freezes in winter. It can remain green and growing even through mild freezes, but will usually be dormant by late winter. 
 
 
This native grasses will readily grow from seed, and when happy they can spread quickly into large stands from both seeds and rhizomes. The seeds germinate very well in disturbed soils, and are a great choice to sow into eroding areas to help stabilize them, though its best to give the seeds at least a thin mulch if there isn’t full shade, or if there is a lot of erosive water movement.
 
Dense mats of Inland Sea Oats can slow and infiltrate large volumes of water, and will catch and build soil in places that were previously eroding away.
 
Their above and below ground structures are very well suited for catching heavy rains, from their tall stems and broad leaves that slow the rain, to the way the angling of their stems then directs water down in to the center of the clump, where their strong roots then funnel it down into the ground.
 
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